Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology


Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumors   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA

Infant leukaemias

Congenital leukaemias

Neonatal leukaemias

Written1999-05Jean-Loup Huret
Genetics, Dept Medical Information, University of Poitiers, CHU Poitiers Hospital, F-86021 Poitiers, France
Updated2019-10Karen M. Chisholm
Department of Laboratories, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; karen.chisholm@seattlechildrens.org

Abstract Review on congenital/neonatal and infant leukemias, with data on clinics, pathology, and involved genes.

Keywords congenital, infant, KMT2A, leukemia, neonatal

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

ICD-Topo C420,C421,C424 BLOOD, BONE MARROW, & HEMATOPOIETIC SYS
ICD-Morpho 9811/3 B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma, NOS
ICD-Morpho 9861/3 AML with mutated NPM1; AML with mutated CEBPA; Acute myeloid leukaemia, NOS
ICD-Morpho 9811/3 B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma, NOS
ICD-Morpho 9891/3 Acute monoblastic and monocytic leukaemia
ICD-Morpho 9897/3 AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL
ICD-Morpho 9898/1 Transient abnormal myelopoiesis
ICD-Morpho 9910/3 Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia
ICD-Morpho 9911/3 AML (megakaryoblastic) with t(1;22)(p13;q13);RBM15-MKL1
ICD-Morpho 9946/3 Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia
Atlas_Id 1084
Note
  • Congenital and neonatal leukemias are defined as those diagnosed within the first 4 weeks of life.
      Account for <1% of childhood leukemias
    .
  • Infant leukemias are defined as those diagnosed within the first year of like.
  • Clinics and Pathology

    Note EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • Neonatal/congenital leukemia is estimated at 1-5 cases/million live births (~2 cases per year in the UK) (Roberts et al., 2018).
  • Infant leukemia is estimated at ~160 cases/year (41 cases per million) in the United States (Brown et al, 2019).
  • Infant ALL accounts for 2-5% of pediatric ALL cases (Pui et al., 1994).
  • Infant AML accounts for 6-20% of pediatric AML.
  • Data has shown that patients, diagnosed to have a leukaemia at age 5 mths and 2 yrs, already had a KMT2A/AFF1 (then MLL-AF4) fusion gene in their neonatal blood spots/Guthrie cards (Gale et al., 1997).
  • Infant leukaemias have been suspected to have an environmental component (Greaves, 1996):
    • Some of the leukaemias known to be often related to genotoxic exposure, such as the 11q23 leukaemias and the t(8;16) leukaemia, may also be found in infants.
    • There has been a significant increase in infant acute leukaemias incidence of around 2.5% per year for 15 yrs, suggesting the presence of an environmental factor.
    • Studies have found an increased risk after maternal marijuana use and alcohol consumption.
    • Maternal exposure to dietary flavonoids during pregnancy may contribute to the risk of KMT2A rearranged leukemias.
    • Infants with leukaemia (excluding Down syndrome cases) have more congenital anomalies (heart defects, digestive tract anomalies, mental delay).
    CLINICS Sex ratio is balanced, both in AML and in ALL cases.
    Neonatal leukemias:
  • Common to have hepatosplenomegaly (~80% of cases), skin lesions (leukemia cutis, ~50% of cases), CNS involvement (~50% of cases), and/or hyperleukocytosis.
  • Cutaneous involvement can be the presenting feature and can manifest as the so-called 'blueberry muffin baby' appearance with blue, purple, brown, or red nodules.
    • 2/3 of AML cases have cutaneous involvement.
    • 1/2 of ALL cases have cutaneous involvement.
  • Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia can lead to increased bleeding tendency, infections, and failure to thrive.
  • Infiltration of the CNS can cause cranial nerve palsies, seizures, and papilledema.
  • Meningeal infiltration can manifest as a bulging fontanelle.
    S Infant leukemias:
  • Many have aggressive features including high WBC counts, hepatosplenomegaly, frequent CNS involvement, and/or skin infiltrations (leukemia cutis). PATHOLOGY/CYTOGENETICS
    Neonatal leukemia - 2/3 AML; 1/3 ALL
    Infant leukemia - more likely ALL than AML
    ALL
  • 11q23 (KMT2A) gene rearrangements in 70-80% of infants and up to 91% of those infants younger than 6 months (Pieters et al., 2007; Zweidler-McKay and Hilden, 2008).
  • Most common KMT2A partners are AFF1, MLLT1, MLLT3, and MLLT10 (Pieters et al., 2007).
  • Usually express CD19, CD22, and TdT by flow cytometry. Those without KMT2A fusions usually express CD10; those with KMT2A rearrangements often lack CD10 but express CD15.
    AML
  • Usually myelomonocytic (FAB M4), monoblastic/monocytic (FAB M5), or megakaryoblastic leukemia (FAB M7).
  • 11q23 (KMT2A) gene rearrangements in 50% of infants (Brown et al., 2019; Zweidler-McKay and Hilden, 2008).
  • Most common KMT2A partners are MLLT3, MLLT10, and ELL (Pieters et al., 2007)
  • Usually express CD13 and CD33 by flow cytometry; M4 and M5 also express CD14 and CD15; M7 also expresses CD61, CD42b, and/or CD41 by flow cytometry.
    TREATMENT
    ALL Interfant-99 protocol uses a 7-day prednisone prophase and then a hybrid regimen of standard ALL therapy with some AML therapy elements (including cytarabine) (Brown et al., 2019; Pieters et al., 2007).
    AML Generally treated on the same clinical protocols as older children with multiagent chemotherapy plus CNS-directed therapy (Brown et al., 2019) PROGNOSIS
    ALL
  • 4yr event free survival is 47% and 4-year overall survival is 55.3% (Pieters et al., 2007).
    • However, 4-year EFS of those with KMT2A rearrangements was 37% compared to 74% in those without KMT2A rearrangements.
  • High WBC (>300 K/uL), young age (<6 months), presence of KMT2A rearrangement, and poor prednisone response were significant predictors of poor outcome (Pieters et al., 2007).
  • Survival after relapse is low, with 3-year overall survival after relapse of 20.9% (Driessen et al., 2016).
  • In those who relapse, outcome is negatively impacted by age at original diagnosis (<6 months of age), higher WBC count at diagnosis, and relapse within 1 year after diagnosis (Driessen et al., 2016).
  • In those with congenital leukemia, the 2-year EFS and OS is 20% (van der Linden et al., 2009).
    AML
  • Outcomes are similar in infants to those of older children with 5-year overall survival of 51% and 5-year event free survival of 44%.
  • Spontaneous regression/remission can occur in rare cases (Bresters et al., 2002; Roberts et al., 2018; van den Berg et al., 2004).
    Survivors of infant leukemia demonstrate increased risk of late effects including growth problems, learning difficulties, hypothyroidism, and pubertal development (Roberts et al., 2018).
    Use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is controversial and findings are not conclusive as to whether it improves survival.

  • Disease Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) of Down syndrome
    Epidemiology Restricted to newborns with trisomy 21 or mosaic for trisomy 21.
    Clinics Some infants (10-25%) are asymptomatic, only presenting with increased circulating blasts (Massey et al., 2006; Klusmann et al., 2008). Most neonates present at 3-7 days of age with a leukocytosis and an abnormal platelet count (usually thrombocytopenia, but thrombocytosis has also been identified). Hepatomegaly is common due to fibrosis and/or megakaryoblast infiltration. Other clinical findings include splenomegaly, exudative effusions (including pleural, pericardial, and ascites), and respiratory distress (due to hepatomegaly). In utero presentations include hydrops fetalis and anemia.
    Genes GATA1 somatic mutations are present.
    Evolution Spontaneous resolution of blasts and symptoms occurs in 66-84% of infants over a time period of 2-3 months without a need for intervention (Klusmann et al., 2008; Gamis et al., 2011). The remaining infants may need supportive therapy or chemotherapy. Overall, approximately 15-20% of cases still die, though some of these are due to other abnormalities associated with trisomy 21 (Klusmann et al., 2008; Gamis et al., 2011). Approximately 16-30% of infants, whether they were asymptomatic or had clinical symptoms, develop myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome (Klusmann et al., 2008).

    Disease 11q23 abnormalities
    Phenotype / cell stem origin Acute monoblastic/monocytic or myelomonocytic leukaemia (AML) or CD19+ B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL).
    Epidemiology 11q23 (KMT2A) gene rearrangements are in present in 70-80% of infants with B-ALL and up to 91% of those infants younger than 6 months with B-ALL (Pieters et al., 2007).
    11q23 (KMT2A) gene rearrangements are present in 50% of infants with AML (Brown et al., 2019).
    Clinics Organomegaly; frequent CNS involvement; high WBC count (Huret et al., 1993; Johansson et al., 1998).
    Pathology In those with ALL and KMT2A gene rearrangements, flow cytometry immunophenotyping often shows expression of CD19, CD22, TdT, and CD15 with absence of CD10; CD13 an CD33 may be expressed.
    In those with ALL and KMT2A gene rearrangements, there is often overexpression of FLT3.
    In those with AML, there is often expression of CD13, CD14, CD15, and CD33.
    Cytogenetics
  • t(4;11)(q21;q23) KMT2A/AFF1 : most common infant translocation; usually ALL (49% of B-ALL cases, and more often in those <6 months of age), but can be AML (<5%) (acute monoblastic/monocytic or myelomonocytic leukemia), or mixed phenotype acute leukemia (Johansson, et al., 1998).
  • t(9;11)(p23;q23) KMT2A/MLLT3 : found in 22% infant acute monoblastic/monocytic or myelomonocytic AML and 17% of infant ALL (Köller et al., 1989; Swansbury et al., 1998).
  • t(10;11)(p12;q23) KMT2A/MLLT10 : found in 27% infant acute monoblastic/monocytic or myelomonocytic AML and 5% of infant ALL (Lillington et al., 1998).
  • t(11;19)(q23;p13.3) KMT2A/MLLT1: found in 22% infant ALL, mixed phenotype acute leukemia, and 15% acute monoblastic/monocytic or myelomonocytic leukemia (Huret et al., 1993; Moorman et al., 1998).
  • t(11;19)(q23;p13.1) KMT2A-ELL: found in 17% AML, usually acute myelomonocytic or monoblastic/monocytic leukemia (Moorman et al., 1998).
  • Other 11q23 rearrangements are rarely found in infants leukemias.
  • Prognosis 4 year event free survival is 37% (Pieters et al., 2007).
    t(4;11)(q21;q23) KMT2A/AFF1: may have worse outcome (Heerema et al., 1994)

    Disease t(1;22)(p13;q13) RBM15/MKL1
    Note This is a cryptic fusion not identified by routine karyotyping, and usually requiring RNA sequencing for identification.
    Phenotype / cell stem origin Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (M7 AML).
    Epidemiology This leukaemia is (nearly) restricted to infant cases; median age is 2-4 months (Bernstein et al., 1999; Chan et al., 1991; Lion and Haas, 1993); accounts for <1% AML.
    Clinics Organomegaly, liver and bone marrow fibrosis.
    Prognosis remission is obtained in only half cases, median survival is 8 months (Bernstein et al., 1999).

    Disease AMkL with inv(16)(p13q24) CBFA2T3/GLIS2
    Phenotype / cell stem origin Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in most cases, though rare other AML subtypes are identified with this fusion.
    Epidemiology Usually presents in infants (Bolouri et al., 2017; Hara et al., 2017).
    Prognosis Poor prognosis with 4-5-year OS ranging from 14-41.7% and 4-5-year EFS ranging from 8-33% (de Rooij et al., 2016; de Rooij et al., 2017; Hara et al., 2017).

    Disease AML with t(11;12)(p15;p13) NUP98/KDM5A
    Phenotype / cell stem origin Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in most cases, though rare other AML subtypes are identified with this fusion.
    Epidemiology Can present in infants (de Rooij et al., 2016).
    Prognosis Usually a poor prognosis with 4-5-year OS ranging from 22-50% and 4-5-year EFS ranging from 22-36% (de Rooij et al., 2013; de Rooij et al., 2016; de Rooij et al., 2017; Hara et al., 2017).

    Disease inv(16)(p13q22)
    Phenotype / cell stem origin Myelomonocytic leukemia (M4 AML)
    Epidemiology At least 3 cases reported.
    Clinics High WBC, CNS involvement in 2/3 (Pui et al., 1987).

    Disease t(5;15)(p15;q11)
    Phenotype / cell stem origin B lineage ALL
    Epidemiology 5 known cases (Heerema et al., 1994).
    Prognosis unknown; CR in 5/5.

    Disease t(8;16)(p11;p13) KAT6A/CREBBP
    Phenotype / cell stem origin Acute myelomonocytic or monoblastic/monocytic AML.
    Clinics Leukemia cutis, hepatosplenomegaly.
    Prognosis Has shown spontaneous regression in some cases, though some do relapse (Dinulos et al., 1997; Roberts et al., 2018) Other cases require chemotherapy from diagnosis.

    Disease Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia
    Phenotype / cell stem origin
    Epidemiology Annual incidence is approximately 0.67 cases/million with a median age of 1.1-1.8 years and male to female ratio of 2-3:1. (Hasle et al., 1999; Niemeyer et al., 1997; Passmore et al., 2003).
    Clinics Splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and skin rashes are common (Hess et al., 1996).
    The diagnostic criteria for JMML are (Locatelli and Neimeyer, 2015; Baumann, et al., 2017).
    Clinical and hematologic features (all 4 required)
  • Peripheral blood monocyte count ≥ 1 x 109/L.
  • Peripheral blood and bone marrow blast percentages <20%.
  • Splenomegaly. Genetic criteria (1 finding is sufficient)
  • Somatic mutation in PTPN11, KRAS, or NRAS.
  • Clinical diagnosis of neurofibromastosis type 1 or NF1 mutation.
  • Germline CBL mutation and loss of heterozygosity of CBL.
    Other criteria (those not meeting genetic criteria but having clinical and hematologic criteria must also have).
  • Monosomy 7 or any other chromosomal abnormality.
    or ≥ 2 of the following:
  • Increased hemoglobin F (HbF) for age.
  • Myeloid or erythroid precursors on peripheral blood smear.
  • Granulocyte-macrophages colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) hypersensitivity in colony assay.
  • Hyperphosphorylation of STAT5.
  • Prognosis Those with germline mutations in PTPN11, KRAS, NRAS, or CBL have disease that may spontaneously regress without therapy (Locatelli and Neimeyer, 2015). However, in other cases HSCT is recommended, after which the 5-year overall survival rate is 64%, with an event free survival of 52% (Locatelli et al., 2005).

    Genes involved and Proteins

    Gene NameKMT2A (MLL)
    Location 11q23
    Dna / Rna Encodes a histone-lysine N-methyltransferase, a 431 kDa protein; contains 3 AT hook DNA-binding domains, Zinc fingers, a SET domain which is responsible for its DNA methyltransferase activity, and a bromodomain.
    Protein Regulates gene expression during early development and hematopoiesis; regulates transcription of many target genes, including HOX genes. The fusion proteins usually include the N-terminus AT hook and DNA methyltransferase from KMT2A fused to (little or most of) the partner C-term part from the other chromosome.

    Bibliography

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia
    Baumann I, Bennett JM, Neimeyer CM, Thiele J.
    WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid tissues. Editors: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, Thiele J. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 2017. Pgs 89-92
     
    Nineteen cases of the t(1;22)(p13;q13) acute megakaryblastic leukaemia of infants/children and a review of 39 cases: report from a t(1;22) study group
    Bernstein J, Dastugue N, Haas OA, Harbott J, Heerema NA, Huret JL, Landman-Parker J, LeBeau MM, Leonard C, Mann G, Pages MP, Perot C, Pirc-Danoewinata H, Roitzheim B, Rubin CM, Slociak M, Viguie F
    Leukemia 2000 Jan;14(1):216-8
    PMID 10637500
     
    The molecular landscape of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia reveals recurrent structural alterations and age-specific mutational interactions
    Bolouri H, Farrar JE, Triche T Jr, Ries RE, Lim EL, Alonzo TA, Ma Y, Moore R, Mungall AJ, Marra MA, Zhang J, Ma X, Liu Y, Liu Y, Auvil JMG, Davidsen TM, Gesuwan P, Hermida LC, Salhia B, Capone S, Ramsingh G, Zwaan CM, Noort S, Piccolo SR, Kolb EA, Gamis AS, Smith MA, Gerhard DS, Meshinchi S
    Nat Med 2018 Jan;24(1):103-112
    PMID 29227476
     
    Congenital leukaemia: the Dutch experience and review of the literature
    Bresters D, Reus AC, Veerman AJ, van Wering ER, van der Does-van den Berg A, Kaspers GJ
    Br J Haematol 2002 Jun;117(3):513-24
    PMID 12028017
     
    How I treat infant leukemia
    Brown P, Pieters R, Biondi A
    Blood 2019 Jan 17;133(3):205-214
    PMID 30459160
     
    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in infants with t(1;22)(p13;q13) abnormality
    Chan WC, Carroll A, Alvarado CS, Phillips S, Gonzalez-Crussi F, Kurczynski E, Pappo A, Emami A, Bowman P, Head DR
    Am J Clin Pathol 1992 Aug;98(2):214-21
    PMID 1510033
     
    Molecular rearrangements on chromosome 11q23 predominate in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia and are associated with specific biologic variables and poor outcome
    Chen CS, Sorensen PH, Domer PH, Reaman GH, Korsmeyer SJ, Heerema NA, Hammond GD, Kersey JH
    Blood 1993 May 1;81(9):2386-93
    PMID 8481519
     
    Spontaneous remission of congenital leukemia
    Dinulos JG, Hawkins DS, Clark BS, Francis JS
    J Pediatr 1997 Aug;131(2):300-3
    PMID 9290620
     
    Outcome of relapsed infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated on the interfant-99 protocol
    Driessen EM, de Lorenzo P, Campbell M, Felice M, Ferster A, Hann I, Vora A, Hovi L, Escherich G, Li CK, Mann G, Leblanc T, Locatelli F, Biondi A, Rubnitz J, Schrappe M, Silverman L, Stary J, Suppiah R, Szczepanski T, Valsecchi M, Pieters R
    Leukemia 2016 May;30(5):1184-7
    PMID 26369984
     
    Backtracking leukemia to birth: identification of clonotypic gene fusion sequences in neonatal blood spots
    Gale KB, Ford AM, Repp R, Borkhardt A, Keller C, Eden OB, Greaves MF
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997 Dec 9;94(25):13950-4
    PMID 9391133
     
    Natural history of transient myeloproliferative disorder clinically diagnosed in Down syndrome neonates: a report from the Children's Oncology Group Study A2971
    Gamis AS, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Hilden JM, Sorrell AD, Sharma M, Loew TW, Arceci RJ, Barnard D, Doyle J, Massey G, Perentesis J, Ravindranath Y, Taub J, Smith FO
    Blood 2011 Dec 22;118(26):6752-9; quiz 6996
    PMID 21849481
     
    Infant leukaemia biology, aetiology and treatment
    Greaves MF
    Leukemia 1996 Feb;10(2):372-7
    PMID 8637251
     
    Prognostic impact of specific molecular profiles in pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in non-Down syndrome
    Hara Y, Shiba N, Ohki K, Tabuchi K, Yamato G, Park MJ, Tomizawa D, Kinoshita A, Shimada A, Arakawa H, Saito AM, Kiyokawa N, Tawa A, Horibe K, Taga T, Adachi S, Taki T, Hayashi Y
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2017 May;56(5):394-404
    PMID 28063190
     
    Myelodysplastic syndrome, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia associated with complete or partial monosomy 7
    Hasle H, Aricò M, Basso G, Biondi A, Cant Rajnoldi A, Creutzig U, Fenu S, Fonatsch C, Haas OA, Harbott J, Kardos G, Kerndrup G, Mann G, Niemeyer CM, Ptoszkova H, Ritter J, Slater R, Starý J, Stollmann-Gibbels B, Testi AM, van Wering ER, Zimmermann M
    European Working Group on MDS in Childhood (EWOG-MDS) Leukemia
    PMID 10086728
     
    Cytogenetic features of infants less than 12 months of age at diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: impact of the 11q23 breakpoint on outcome: a report of the Childrens Cancer Group
    Heerema NA, Arthur DC, Sather H, Albo V, Feusner J, Lange BJ, Steinherz PG, Zeltzer P, Hammond D, Reaman GH
    Blood 1994 Apr 15;83(8):2274-84
    PMID 8161794
     
    Juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia
    Hess JL, Zutter MM, Castleberry RP, Emanuel PD
    Am J Clin Pathol 1996 Feb;105(2):238-48
    PMID 8607451
     
    Cytogenetic heterogeneity in t(11;19) acute leukemia: clinical, hematological and cytogenetic analyses of 48 patients--updated published cases and 16 new observations
    Huret JL, Brizard A, Slater R, Charrin C, Bertheas MF, Guilhot F, Hählen K, Kroes W, van Leeuwen E, Schoot EV, et al
    Leukemia 1993 Feb;7(2):152-60
    PMID 8426468
     
    Hematologic malignancies with t(4;11)(q21;q23)--a cytogenetic, morphologic, immunophenotypic and clinical study of 183 cases
    Johansson B, Moorman AV, Haas OA, Watmore AE, Cheung KL, Swanton S, Secker-Walker LM
    European 11q23 Workshop participants Leukemia
    PMID 9593281
     
    Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity in infant acute leukemia
    Köller U, Haas OA, Ludwig WD, Bartram CR, Harbott J, Panzer-Grümayer R, Hansen-Hagge T, Ritter J, Creutzig U, Knapp W, et al
    II Acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia
    PMID 2779287
     
    Treatment and prognostic impact of transient leukemia in neonates with Down syndrome
    Klusmann JH, Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Dworzak M, Jorch N, Langebrake C, Pekrun A, Macakova-Reinhardt K, Reinhardt D
    Blood 2008 Mar 15;111(6):2991-8
    PMID 18182574
     
    The t(10;11)(p12;q23) translocation in acute leukaemia: a cytogenetic and clinical study of 20 patients
    Lillington DM, Young BD, Berger R, Martineau M, Moorman AV, Secker-Walker LM
    European 11q23 Workshop participants Leukemia
    PMID 9593284
     
    Acute megakaryocytic leukemia with the t(1;22)(p13;q13)
    Lion T, Haas OA
    Leuk Lymphoma 1993 Sep;11(1-2):15-20
    PMID 8220150
     
    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML): results of the EWOG-MDS/EBMT trial
    Locatelli F, Nöllke P, Zecca M, Korthof E, Lanino E, Peters C, Pession A, Kabisch H, Uderzo C, Bonfim CS, Bader P, Dilloo D, Stary J, Fischer A, Révész T, Führer M, Hasle H, Trebo M, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Fenu S, Strahm B, Giorgiani G, Bonora MR, Duffner U, Niemeyer CM; European Working Group on Childhood MDS; European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group
    Blood 2005 Jan 1;105(1):410-9
    PMID 15353481
     
    A prospective study of the natural history of transient leukemia (TL) in neonates with Down syndrome (DS): Children's Oncology Group (COG) study POG-9481
    Massey GV, Zipursky A, Chang MN, Doyle JJ, Nasim S, Taub JW, Ravindranath Y, Dahl G, Weinstein HJ; Children's Oncology Group (COG)
    Blood 2006 Jun 15;107(12):4606-13
    PMID 16469874
     
    The translocations, t(11;19)(q23;p13
    Moorman AV, Hagemeijer A, Charrin C, Rieder H, Secker-Walker LM
    1) and t(11;19)(q23;p13 3): a cytogenetic and clinical profile of 53 patients
    PMID 9593285
     
    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia in childhood: a retrospective analysis of 110 cases
    Niemeyer CM, Arico M, Basso G, Biondi A, Cantu Rajnoldi A, Creutzig U, Haas O, Harbott J, Hasle H, Kerndrup G, Locatelli F, Mann G, Stollmann-Gibbels B, van't Veer-Korthof ET, van Wering E, Zimmermann M
    European Working Group on Myelodysplastic Syndromes in Childhood (EWOG-MDS) Blood
    PMID 9160658
     
    Paediatric myelodysplastic syndromes and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia in the UK: a population-based study of incidence and survival
    Passmore SJ, Chessells JM, Kempski H, Hann IM, Brownbill PA, Stiller CA
    Br J Haematol 2003 Jun;121(5):758-67
    PMID 12780790
     
    A treatment protocol for infants younger than 1 year with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Interfant-99): an observational study and a multicentre randomised trial
    Pieters R, Schrappe M, De Lorenzo P, Hann I, De Rossi G, Felice M, Hovi L, LeBlanc T, Szczepanski T, Ferster A, Janka G, Rubnitz J, Silverman L, Stary J, Campbell M, Li CK, Mann G, Suppiah R, Biondi A, Vora A, Valsecchi MG
    Lancet 2007 Jul 21;370(9583):240-250
    PMID 17658395
     
    11q23/MLL rearrangement confers a poor prognosis in infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Pui CH, Behm FG, Downing JR, Hancock ML, Shurtleff SA, Ribeiro RC, Head DR, Mahmoud HH, Sandlund JT, Furman WL, et al
    J Clin Oncol 1994 May;12(5):909-15
    PMID 8164041
     
    An analysis of leukemic cell chromosomal features in infants
    Pui CH, Raimondi SC, Murphy SB, Ribeiro RC, Kalwinsky DK, Dahl GV, Crist WM, Williams DL
    Blood 1987 May;69(5):1289-93
    PMID 2952182
     
    Neonatal leukaemia
    Roberts I, Fordham NJ, Rao A, Bain BJ
    Br J Haematol 2018 Jul;182(2):170-184
    PMID 29806701
     
    Hematological malignancies with t(9;11)(p21-22;q23)--a laboratory and clinical study of 125 cases
    Swansbury GJ, Slater R, Bain BJ, Moorman AV, Secker-Walker LM
    European 11q23 Workshop participants Leukemia
    PMID 9593283
     
    The ABCs of infant leukemia
    Zweidler-McKay PA, Hilden JM
    Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2008 Mar;38(3):78-94
    PMID 18279790
     
    Recurrent abnormalities can be used for risk group stratification in pediatric AMKL: a retrospective intergroup study
    de Rooij JD, Masetti R, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Cayuela JM, Trka J, Reinhardt D, Rasche M, Sonneveld E, Alonzo TA, Fornerod M, Zimmermann M, Pigazzi M, Pieters R, Meshinchi S, Zwaan CM, Locatelli F
    Blood 2016 Jun 30;127(26):3424-30
    PMID 27114462
     
    Spontaneous remission in congenital leukemia is not related to (mosaic) trisomy 21: case presentation and literature review
    van den Berg H, Hopman AH, Kraakman KC, de Jong D
    Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2004 Mar;21(2):135-44
    PMID 15160512
     
    Outcome of congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated on the Interfant-99 protocol
    van der Linden MH, Valsecchi MG, De Lorenzo P, Möricke A, Janka G, Leblanc TM, Felice M, Biondi A, Campbell M, Hann I, Rubnitz JE, Stary J, Szczepanski T, Vora A, Ferster A, Hovi L, Silverman LB, Pieters R
    Blood 2009 Oct 29;114(18):3764-8
    PMID 19657114
     

    Citation

    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Chisholm KM
    Infant leukaemias; Congenital leukaemias; Neonatal leukaemias;
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. in press
    On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Anomalies/InfantLeukID1084.html
    History of this paper:
    Huret, JL. Infant leukaemias - Congenital leukaemias - Neonatal leukaemias. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1999;3(2):89-92.
    http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/bitstream/handle/2042/37515/05-1999-InfantLeukID1084.pdf


    External links

    COSMICHisto = - Site = haematopoietic_and_lymphoid_tissue (COSMIC)
    arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9811/3) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9861/3) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9811/3) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9891/3) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9897/3) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9898/1) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9910/3) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9911/3) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9946/3) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
     
     
    REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    Last year articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    All articlesautomatic search in PubMed


    © Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    indexed on : Wed Mar 11 20:40:40 CET 2020


    Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumors   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

    For comments and suggestions or contributions, please contact us

    jlhuret@AtlasGeneticsOncology.org.