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t(2;9)(q37;q34) INPP5D/ABL1

Written2012-03Purvi M Kakadia, Stefan K Bohlander
Center for Human genetics, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, Marburg, Germany

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ICD-Morpho 9811/3 B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma, NOS
Atlas_Id 1577
Other namesINPP5D/ABL1 fusion
SHIP1/ABL1 fusion

Clinics and Pathology

Disease c-ALL
Epidemiology Only one case known to date, a 18-year-old female patient.
Clinics Immature lymphoid blast population CD19+, CD10+, with no co-expression of myeloid markers.
Treatment Treated with Imatinib; a complete remission (CR) was obtained. Continued CR after bone marrow transplantation (Follow-up: 15 months).


Cytogenetics Morphological Normal karyotype. This translocation would be hard to detect using conventional cytogenetics.
Cytogenetics Molecular ABL1 rearrangement observed in interphase cells but not on metaphase chromosomes by FISH using commercial BCR-ABL-DCDF probes (Abbott). FISH using SHIP-ABL-DCDF FISH probes showed two fusion signals indicating the SHIP1-ABL1 fusion and one fusion signal for the reciprocal fusion on interphase cells. The rearrangement was not observed on the metaphase chromosomes, possibly because the malignant cells did not go into mitosis.
  Figure 1: FISH analysis: (I) Interphase nuclei showing four FISH signals for ABL1 (orange) with a commercial BCR/ABL-DCDF probe. (II) Schematic diagram showing the position of the BAC clones corresponding to the 3' and 5' portions of the SHIP1 and ABL1 genes, with the color scheme used for the fluorescent labelling of the SHIP1/ABL1 DCDF probes. The BAC clones for SHIP1 were labelled with FITC and those for ABL1 were labelled with Texas Red. (SHIP1 clones: A: RP13-497I2 and B: RP13-916J2; ABL1 BAC clones: C: RP11-57C19 and D: RP11-835J22). (III-V) Interphase FISH demonstrating the presence of three fusion signals using the SHIP1-ABL1-DCDF probes (III), two SHIP1-ABL1 fusion signals, when SHIP1-ABL1 fusion specific probes were used (IV) and presence of one reciprocal ABL1/SHIP1 fusion using the ABL1-SHIP1 fusion specific FISH probe (V) in the patient sample. With all three probe combinations one normal copy of each the SHIP1 and ABL1 locus was also confirmed. The probes used for the hybridization are indicated below each image. The fusion signals (yellow) are indicated by arrows.

Genes involved and Proteins

Gene NameINPP5D (inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase D)
Location 2q37.1
Note Other names: SHIP, SHIP1, SIP-145, hp51CN.
Dna / Rna Transcript variant 1: NM_001017915.1; 26 exons, 4928 bp mRNA.
Transcript variant 2: NM_005541.3; 26 exons, 4925 bp mRNA.
There is also an INPP5D transcript variant described with 29 exons in the Ensembl database (INPP5D-201 ENST00000359570).
Protein Proteins: Variant 1 contains 1189 aa and Variant 2 contains 1188 aa.
Domains: An N-terminal SH2 domain, an inositol phosphatase domain and two C-terminal protein interaction domains (Figure 3, upper box).
Expression: The expression of SHIP1 is restricted to hematopoietic cells.
Localization: Cytosol and plasma membrane; the localization of SHIP1 (cytosol vs. plasma membrane) is regulated by its SH2 domain which mediates interaction with tyrosine phosphorylated receptors.
Function: SHIP1 is a phosphatase, which hydrolyzes the 5-phosphates from phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (Ptdins(3,4,5)P3; PIP3) and inositol-1,3,4,5 tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4; PIP4) (Damen et al., 1996), thereby negatively regulating the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway. The PI3K pathway is part of many important signalling pathways and regulates key cellular functions such as survival, proliferation, cell activation and cell migration (Krystal, 2000; Ward and Cantrell, 2001; Ward, 2006). SHIP1 regulates these important cellular functions by controlling PIP3 levels and Ras activity following cytokine stimulation (Batty et al., 1985; Damen et al., 1996).
Homology: Belongs to the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase family.
Contains an SH2 domain.
Gene NameABL1 (v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1)
Location 9q34.12

Result of the chromosomal anomaly

Hybrid gene
  Figure 2: Partial sequence of the PCR product showing an in-frame fusion of SHIP1 with ABL1.
Transcript Only SHIP1-ABL1 fusion transcript was detected. The reciprocal ABL1-SHIP1 fusion transcript was not detected.
Detection The SHIP1-ABL1 fusion transcript can be detected by 5' SHIP1 forward primer (bp 997-1015): 5'-TTGCTGCACGAGGGTCCTG-3' and 3' ABL1 reverse primer (bp 1474-1454): 5'-TCTCCAGACTGTTGACTGGCG-3' resulting in 477 bp PCR product.
Fusion Protein
  Figure 3: The upper two diagrams show the SHIP1 and the ABL1 proteins and the lower diagram depicts the SHIP1/ABL1 fusion protein. The arrows indicate the breakpoints in the individual proteins; numbers indicate amino acid positions. SH2: Src homology-2 domain; SH3: Src homology-3 domain; 5-ptase: Inositol 5-phosphatase domain; INPNY and ENPLY: Target sequences for the phospho tyrosine binding domains of other proteins; TK: Tyrosine kinase domain; DB: DNA binding domain; AD: Actin-binding domain.
Description The fusion protein leads to the constitutive activation of the ABL1 tyrosine kinase facilitated by the homo-di- and homo-heteromerization of the fusion protein via the dimerization domain within the N-terminal SHIP1 portion contained in the fusion protein.
Oncogenesis Constitutive activation of ABL1 tyrosine kinase activity and possibly inactivation of the putative tumor suppressor function of SHIP1.

To be noted

Additional cases are needed to delineate the epidemiology of this rare entity:
you are welcome to submit a paper to our new Case Report section.


Rapid formation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate following muscarinic receptor stimulation of rat cerebral cortical slices.
Batty IR, Nahorski SR, Irvine RF.
Biochem J. 1985 Nov 15;232(1):211-5.
PMID 4084229
The 145-kDa protein induced to associate with Shc by multiple cytokines is an inositol tetraphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate 5-phosphatase.
Damen JE, Liu L, Rosten P, Humphries RK, Jefferson AB, Majerus PW, Krystal G.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Feb 20;93(4):1689-93.
PMID 8643691
A novel ABL1 fusion to the SH2 containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP1) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Kakadia PM, Tizazu B, Mellert G, Harbott J, Rottgers S, Quentmeier H, Spiekermann K, Bohlander SK.
Leukemia. 2011 Oct;25(10):1645-9. doi: 10.1038/leu.2011.129. Epub 2011 May 31.
PMID 21625237
Lipid phosphatases in the immune system.
Krystal G.
Semin Immunol. 2000 Aug;12(4):397-403. (REVIEW)
PMID 10995586
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases in T lymphocyte activation.
Ward SG, Cantrell DA.
Curr Opin Immunol. 2001 Jun;13(3):332-8. (REVIEW)
PMID 11406365
T lymphocytes on the move: chemokines, PI 3-kinase and beyond.
Ward SG.
Trends Immunol. 2006 Feb;27(2):80-7. Epub 2006 Jan 18. (REVIEW)
PMID 16413226


This paper should be referenced as such :
Kakadia, PM ; Bohlander, SK
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2012;16(7):506-508.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

Translocations implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

 t(2;9)(q37;q34) INPP5D/ABL1

External links

Mitelman databaset(2;9)(q37;q34)
arrayMap (UZH-SIB Zurich)Topo ( C42) Morph ( 9811/3) -   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year articlesautomatic search in PubMed
All articlesautomatic search in PubMed

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