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HNRNPA1 (Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1)

Written2018-10Murat Erdem, Ibrahim Özgül, Ayse Elif Erson-Bensan
Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, TURKEY, E-mail: erson@metu.edu.tr; merdem@metu.edu.tr; iozgul@metu.edu.tr

Abstract Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNPA1) gene maps to chromosome 12, plus strand and has 13 exons and 12 introns. There are three reported transcripts due to the alternative splicing.
HNRNPA1 is one of the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed nuclear proteins. HNRNPA1 is a member of RNA-binding protein family comprising of 20 members in humans (Dreyfuss, 1993; Pinol-Roma, Choi, Matunis, & Dreyfuss, 1988). HNRNPA1 has diverse roles in RNA splicing, telomere length maintenance, miRNA maturation and mRNA transport from nucleus to cytoplasm.

Keywords HNRNPA1; RNA-binding protein; RNA splicing; telomere length maintenance; miRNA maturation; mRNA transport

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesHNRPA1
Alias_symbol (synonym)hnRNPA1
hnRNP-A1
ALS20
Other aliasALS20 (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 20)
hnRNP A1
IBMPFD3 (inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease)
UP 1
HNRPA1L3
HGNC (Hugo) HNRNPA1
LocusID (NCBI) 3178
Atlas_Id 43803
Location 12q13.13  [Link to chromosome band 12q13]
Location_base_pair Starts at 54280690 and ends at 54285246 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping HNRNPA1.png]
Local_order From telomere to centromere: LOC105369777, CBX5, ENSG00000257596, HNRNPA1, NFE2, ENSG00000258344, COPZ1, GPR84
 
  Local order of HNRNPA1 together with neighboring upstream and downstream genes on chromosome 12. The direction of arrows indicates direction of transcription and arrow sizes approximate gene sizes.
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)

DNA/RNA

Note HNRNPA1 gene consists of 13 exons and 12 introns. The gene maps to 12q13.13 and is 6399 bps long (NCBI Reference Sequence: NC_000012.12: 54280690-54287088). Highlighted in red is the protein coding sequence from exons 1-10. (Figure 2)
 
  HNRNPA1 gene has 13 exons and 12 introns. Numbers indicate the exons. Red exons show protein-coding regions while blue color represents untranslated regions.
Description The HNRNPA1 gene is 6399 bases long and is on the plus strand. HNRNPA1 gene has 13 exons (Jean-Philippe et al., 2013).
Transcription HNRNPA1 produces two coding transcripts (Exon 1-11). The difference between these coding transcripts is the presence or absence of exon 8 (only longer mRNA contains exon 8). A third one was reported as a potential non-coding transcript (Mendell et al, 2004). This non-coding RNA transcript has exons 12 and 13, and it does not contain exon 8.
Pseudogene There are 75 pseudogenes of HNRNPA1 which are: HNRNPA1P1, HNRNPA1P10, HNRNPA1P11, HNRNPA1P12, HNRNPA1P13, HNRNPA1P14, HNRNPA1P15, HNRNPA1P16, HNRNPA1P17, HNRNPA1P18, HNRNPA1P19, HNRNPA1P2, HNRNPA1P20, HNRNPA1P21, HNRNPA1P22, HNRNPA1P23, HNRNPA1P24, HNRNPA1P25, HNRNPA1P26, HNRNPA1P27, HNRNPA1P28, HNRNPA1P29, HNRNPA1P3, HNRNPA1P30, HNRNPA1P31, HNRNPA1P32, HNRNPA1P33, HNRNPA1P35, HNRNPA1P36, HNRNPA1P37, HNRNPA1P38, HNRNPA1P39, HNRNPA1P4, HNRNPA1P40, HNRNPA1P42, HNRNPA1P43, HNRNPA1P44, HNRNPA1P45, HNRNPA1P46, HNRNPA1P47, HNRNPA1P48, HNRNPA1P49, HNRNPA1P5, HNRNPA1P50, HNRNPA1P51, HNRNPA1P52, HNRNPA1P53, HNRNPA1P54, HNRNPA1P55, HNRNPA1P56, HNRNPA1P58, HNRNPA1P59, HNRNPA1P6, HNRNPA1P60, HNRNPA1P61, HNRNPA1P62, HNRNPA1P63, HNRNPA1P64, HNRNPA1P65, HNRNPA1P66, HNRNPA1P67, HNRNPA1P68, HNRNPA1P69, HNRNPA1P7, HNRNPA1P70, HNRNPA1P71, HNRNPA1P72, HNRNPA1P74, HNRNPA1P75, HNRNPA1P76, HNRNPA1P77, HNRNPA1P8, HNRNPA1P9, LOC100421349 and LOC100421402(NCBI,2018).

Protein

Note HNRNPA1 gene encodes a 372 amino acid protein. The protein is a member of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and has an estimated molecular weight of 38-39 kDa (Jean-Philippe, Paz, & Caputi, 2013).
 
  HNRNPA1 has three functional regions; two RNA-recognition motifs and one Glycine-rich Prion like domain. Numbers above the bars indicate amino acids harboring the domains.
Description HNRNPA1 has two RNA recognition motifs; RRM1 and RRM2. These domains are known for binding to single-stranded RNAs (Dreyfuss, Swanson, & Piñol-Roma, 1988). HNRNPA1 also possesses a prion-like domain (PLD). This domain is reported in RNA binding proteins that have been associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Kim et al., 2013). In addition, glycine-rich region mediates subcellular localization and protein-protein interactions (Han, Tang, & Smith, 2010).
Expression HNRNPA1 mRNA is expressed in all human tissues including brain, skin, lung, breast and kidney (The Human Protein Atlas, 2018).
 
  Expression of HNRNPA1 in different types of tissues is shown (The Human Protein Atlas, 2018).
Localisation HNRNPA1 protein is mainly nuclear; however, under certain conditions the protein is also present in the cytosol (Roy et al., 2014). In fact, HNRNPA1 may shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm along with mRNAs (Jønson et al., 2007).
Function HNRNPA1 has a very broad range of reported functions including transcriptional regulation, alternative splicing, mRNA transport, translation and miRNA processing. Most surprisingly, HNRNPA1 can interact with certain promoters and induce transcriptional repression or activation of target genes. VDR (Vitamin D receptor) (H. Chen, Hewison, Hu, & Adams, 2003), FGG (γ-fibrinogen) (Xia, 2005) and TK1 (thymidine kinase) (Lau et al., 2000) promoters are transcriptionally repressed while APOE promoter is activated by HNRNPA1 (Campillos et al., 2003).
HNRNPA1 has an important role in mRNA splicing. The protein modulates alternative splicing of various genes including INSR (Insulin Receptor) (Talukdar et al., 2011), BRCA1 (Breast Cancer 1) (Goina, Skoko, & Pagani, 2008), PKM (Pyruvate Kinase M1/2) (David, Chen, Assanah, Canoll, & Manley, 2010) and its own HNRNPA1 mRNA (Hutchison, LeBel, Blanchette, & Chabot, 2002). mRNA splicing is modulated by HNRNPA1 by exon skipping and splice site repression (Jean-Philippe et al., 2013).
HNRNPA1 contributes to telomere regulation by promoting telomerase activity via binding to telomeric sequences, potentially as an auxiliary factor for the telomerase enzyme (Zhang, Manche, Xu, & Krainer, 2006).
HNRNPA1 has roles in mRNA transport between nucleus and cytoplasm. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, HNRNPA1 binds to poly(A) tailed mRNAs both in the nucleus and cytoplasm (Mili, Shu, Zhao, & Pinol-Roma, 2001), and possibly aid their transfer through nuclear pores (Piñol-Roma & Dreyfuss, 1992).
Another function attributed to HNRNPA1 is during translation. HNRNPA1 binds to internal ribosomal entry sites (IRES) that initiates 5' cap-independent translation of certain cellular and viral mRNAs (such as, MYC), CSDE1 (Upstream of NRAS), CCND1 (Cyclin D1), VEGFA (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), FGF2 (Fibroblast Growth Factor), APAF1, and XIAP mRNAs (Cammas et al. 2007). In addition, the HIV-1 IRES is stimulated by hnRNPA1 (Martènez-Salas, Piñeiro, & Fernández, 2012).
In addition to mRNA processing and transport , HNRNPA1 interacts directly and specifically with C-terminal region of NF-kB alpha inhibitory subunit via its RNA-binding domain (between residues 95 and 207) resulting in the activation of nuclear factor k B (Hay, Kemp, Dargemont, & Hay, 2001). The exact mechanism of HNRNPA1 and NF-kB interaction is not completely understood. However, in cells lacking HNRNPA1, activation of NF-kB is defected. When HNRNPA1 loss is rescued, an effective NF-kB response to signal induction is observed only upon ligand induction.
As for the microRNA processing, HNRNPA1 binds to the terminal loop of pri-miR-18a, and facilitates MIR18A production by creating favorable cleavage site for DROSHA (Guil & Cáceres, 2007). In contrast, HNRNPA1 negatively affects MIRNLET7A1 (let-7a) biogenesis. HNRNPA1 binds to terminal loop of pri-let-7a-1 and interferes with the binding of KHSRP (component of both Drosha and Dicer complexes, known to promote let-7a biogenesis); hence, inhibiting processing of pri-let-7a by Drosha (Michlewski & Cáceres, 2010).
Homology HNRNPA1 gene has homologs across Amniota including P. troglodytes, M. mulatta, B. taurus, R. norvegicus, G. gallus, M. musculus and H. sapiens (NCBI HomoloGene, 2018). There is also a well-studied HNRNPA1 homolog in D. melanogaster called Hrp36 (Singh & Lakhotia, 2012). In total, there are 97 species including invertebrates that have genes orthologous to A1 (NCBI Ensembl, 2018).

Mutations

Note Up to 106 substitution mutations were reported in the HNRNPA1 gene in 42,067 cancer patients. Reported mutations are generally missense mutations (70 of 106). There are also 4 nonsense mutations, 30 synonymous substitutions and 2 frameshift deletions (COSMIC database, 2018). One of the frameshift deletions found in cancer patients is discovered in the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project (study ID :COSU652) while the other is discovered in 619 incident colorectal cancer patients in the study conducted by Giannakis et al(2016).
Yu et al. (2018) also reported a recessive frameshift mutation in HNRNPA1 leading to deregulation of cardiac transcription network and multiple signaling pathways, including Bone Morphogenetic Protein, Notch and Fibroblast growth factor signaling.

Implicated in

Note HNRNPA1 has been implicated in diverse diseases.
  
Entity Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Note Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results showed that HNRNPA1 protein was decreased in the nuclei of neurons and the significant loss of HNRNPA1 in motor neurons with concomitant cytoplasmic aggregation in ALS cases while HNRNPA1 was mainly located in nucleus of motor neurons in normal cases (Honda et al., 2015). Mutations in prion-like domain (PrLD), enriched in uncharged polar amino acids and glycine, promote excess incorporation of HNRNPA1 into stress granules and cause the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions in animal models (H. J. Kim et al., 2013b). Whole-exome sequencing conducted by Liu et al.(2016) showed a missense mutation in HNRNPA1 in Flail-Arm ALS patients leading to cytoplasmic inclusions that co-localized with stress granules in Flail-Arm ALS.
  
  
Entity Breast Cancer
Note Invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) express the CD44v6 variants, which are regulated by HNRNPA1. Downregulation of HNRNPA1 induces a significant change in the expression levels of CD44 isoforms through alternative splicing. Silencing of HNRNPA1 significantly induced cell death and caused a decrease in cell invasion in the MDA-MB-231 cells (Loh et al., 2015). HNRNPA1 silencing through siRNAs significantly lowers the cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells (Otsuka, Yamamoto, Ochiya, 2018).
Prognosis In basal-like breast cancer, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients (309 samples) showing high HNRNPA1 expression, had an distinctively shorter relapse-free survival than patients (309 samples) expressing low level of HNRNPA1 and that patients (121 samples) showing high HNRNPA1 expression had a shorter overall survival than patients (120 samples) with low level of HNRNPA1 expression. (Otsuka, Yamamoto, Ochiya, 2018).
  
  
Entity Cervical Carcinoma
Note HNRNPA1 has higher expression in cervical carcinoma compared with normal tissue samples in 32 patients with cervical cancer (Y. J. Kim et al., 2017).
HNRNPA1 expression is upregulated during differentiation of virus-infected epithelial cells in monolayer and 3D cell cultures. HNRNPA1 interacts directly with the Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) late regulatory element (LRE) (which has an important role in temporally controlling virus late gene expression during epithelial differentiation) in the nucleus of differentiated W12 cells in vitro and may facilitate the alternative splicing of late transcripts of virus  in differentiated epithelial cells (Cheunim, Zhang, Milligan, McPhillips, & Graham, 2008).
  
  
Entity Colon Cancer
Note HNRNPA1 mRNA is overexpressed in 40-78% of colon cancer stages, compared with normal colon (Ubagai, Fukuda, & Tsuchiya, 2005).
A cell line based study showed HNRNPA1 to be suppressed by MIR18a in SW620 cells through autophagolysosomal degradation and thus, HNRNPA1 silencing resulted in the suppression of colon cancer cell progression (Fujiya et al., 2014).
  
  
Entity Gastric Cancer (GC)
Note GC tissues have elevated levels of HNRNPA1 protein compared with normal tissues. HNRNPA1 silencing significantly prevented anchorage-dependent growth in GC cells and HNRNPA1 was important to cell growth and progression of GC. HNRNPA1 knockdown caused reduction in cell growth, invasion, migration and reversal of EMT (Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition) in GC cells. Collectively, these results pointed out that HNRNPA1 may have a pivotal role in GC cell invasion and metastasis (Chen et al., 2018).
  
  
Entity Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
Note High expression of HNRNPA1 was reported in the highly metastatic HCC cell lines and in tumor tissues of patients with recurrent HCC. HNRNPA1 silencing reduced cell invasion in highly metastatic HCC cells while overexpression of HNRNPA1 caused a significant increase in invasive behavior of poorly metastatic HCC cells HNRNPA1 was reported to regulate the invasive capacity of HCC cells through regulating the CD44v6 expression(Zhou et al., 2013).
  
  
Entity Lung Cancer
Note The HNRNPA1 protein expression was reported to be upregulated in most tissue samples from lung cancer patients by immunohistochemistry (Boukakis, Patrinou-Georgoula, Lekarakou, Valavanis, & Guialis, 2010). HNRNPA1 knockdown inhibited cell viability and colony formation of lung cancer cells and arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase (Liu, Zhou, Lou, & Zhong, 2016).
  

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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Murat Erdem, Ibrahim zgül, Ayse Elif Erson-Bensan
HNRNPA1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2019;23(6):137-142.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/HNRNPA1ID43803ch12q13.html


Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  t(2;12)(p23;q13) HNRNPA1/ALK


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)HNRNPA1   5031
Cards
AtlasHNRNPA1ID43803ch12q13.txt
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)HNRNPA1  3178  heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1
AliasesALS19; ALS20; HNRPA1; HNRPA1L3; 
IBMPFD3; UP; hnRNP; hnRNP-A1
GeneCards (Weizmann)HNRNPA1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000135486 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000135486 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000135486 [Sequence]  chr12:54280690-54285246 [Contig_View]  HNRNPA1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000135486
TCGA cBioPortalHNRNPA1
AceView (NCBI)HNRNPA1
Genatlas (Paris)HNRNPA1
WikiGenes3178
SOURCE (Princeton)HNRNPA1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)HNRNPA1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)HNRNPA1  -     chr12:54280690-54285246 +  12q13.13   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)HNRNPA1  -     12q13.13   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathHNRNPA1 - 12q13.13 [CytoView hg19]  HNRNPA1 - 12q13.13 [CytoView hg38]
ImmunoBaseENSG00000135486
Mapping of homologs : NCBIHNRNPA1 [Mapview hg19]  HNRNPA1 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM164017   615424   615426   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK129814 AK291113 AK298176 AK303303 AK308679
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_002136 NM_031157
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)HNRNPA1
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.655424 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.655424
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000135486
Gene ExpressionHNRNPA1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   HNRNPA1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   HNRNPA1 [ SEEK ]   HNRNPA1 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)HNRNPA1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevestigatorExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)3178
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)HNRNPA1
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000135486-HNRNPA1 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP09651   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP09651  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP09651
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP09651
PhosPhoSitePlusP09651
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)RRM (PS50102)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)HnRNPA1    hnRNPA1_RRM1    hnRNPA1_RRM2    Nucleotide-bd_a/b_plait_sf    RBD_domain_sf    RRM_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)HnRNPA1 (PF11627)    RRM_1 (PF00076)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam11627    pfam00076   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)RRM (SM00360)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)HNRNPA1
DMDM Disease mutations3178
Blocks (Seattle)HNRNPA1
PDB (RSDB)1HA1    1L3K    1PGZ    1PO6    1U1K    1U1L    1U1M    1U1N    1U1O    1U1P    1U1Q    1U1R    1UP1    2H4M    2LYV    2UP1    4YOE    5MPG    5MPL   
PDB Europe1HA1    1L3K    1PGZ    1PO6    1U1K    1U1L    1U1M    1U1N    1U1O    1U1P    1U1Q    1U1R    1UP1    2H4M    2LYV    2UP1    4YOE    5MPG    5MPL   
PDB (PDBSum)1HA1    1L3K    1PGZ    1PO6    1U1K    1U1L    1U1M    1U1N    1U1O    1U1P    1U1Q    1U1R    1UP1    2H4M    2LYV    2UP1    4YOE    5MPG    5MPL   
PDB (IMB)1HA1    1L3K    1PGZ    1PO6    1U1K    1U1L    1U1M    1U1N    1U1O    1U1P    1U1Q    1U1R    1UP1    2H4M    2LYV    2UP1    4YOE    5MPG    5MPL   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1HA1    1L3K    1PGZ    1PO6    1U1K    1U1L    1U1M    1U1N    1U1O    1U1P    1U1Q    1U1R    1UP1    2H4M    2LYV    2UP1    4YOE    5MPG    5MPL   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1HA1    1L3K    1PGZ    1PO6    1U1K    1U1L    1U1M    1U1N    1U1O    1U1P    1U1Q    1U1R    1UP1    2H4M    2LYV    2UP1    4YOE    5MPG    5MPL   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1HA1    1L3K    1PGZ    1PO6    1U1K    1U1L    1U1M    1U1N    1U1O    1U1P    1U1Q    1U1R    1UP1    2H4M    2LYV    2UP1    4YOE    5MPG    5MPL   
SuperfamilyP09651
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000135486-HNRNPA1 [tissue]
Peptide AtlasP09651
HPRD01242
IPIIPI00215965   IPI00465365   IPI00797148   IPI01021324   IPI00908994   IPI01022060   IPI01021812   IPI01022460   IPI01022641   IPI01022218   IPI01022306   IPI01021093   IPI01022801   IPI00644968   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P09651
IntAct (EBI)P09651
FunCoupENSG00000135486
BioGRIDHNRNPA1
STRING (EMBL)HNRNPA1
ZODIACHNRNPA1
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP09651
Ontology : AmiGOregulation of alternative mRNA splicing, via spliceosome  mRNA splicing, via spliceosome  mRNA splicing, via spliceosome  single-stranded DNA binding  RNA binding  RNA binding  single-stranded RNA binding  mRNA binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  spliceosomal complex  cytoplasm  RNA export from nucleus  fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway  membrane  viral process  RNA metabolic process  protein domain specific binding  negative regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase  positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase  miRNA binding  pre-mRNA binding  cellular response to glucose starvation  mRNA transport  nuclear export  import into nucleus  telomeric repeat-containing RNA binding  extracellular exosome  catalytic step 2 spliceosome  G-rich strand telomeric DNA binding  cellular response to sodium arsenite  ribonucleoprotein complex  ribonucleoprotein complex  
Ontology : EGO-EBIregulation of alternative mRNA splicing, via spliceosome  mRNA splicing, via spliceosome  mRNA splicing, via spliceosome  single-stranded DNA binding  RNA binding  RNA binding  single-stranded RNA binding  mRNA binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  spliceosomal complex  cytoplasm  RNA export from nucleus  fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway  membrane  viral process  RNA metabolic process  protein domain specific binding  negative regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase  positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase  miRNA binding  pre-mRNA binding  cellular response to glucose starvation  mRNA transport  nuclear export  import into nucleus  telomeric repeat-containing RNA binding  extracellular exosome  catalytic step 2 spliceosome  G-rich strand telomeric DNA binding  cellular response to sodium arsenite  ribonucleoprotein complex  ribonucleoprotein complex  
Pathways : KEGGSpliceosome   
REACTOMEP09651 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-72203 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkHNRNPA1
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkHNRNPA1
Wikipedia pathwaysHNRNPA1
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB3178
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000135486
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamHNRNPA1
HOGENOMP09651
Homologs : HomoloGeneHNRNPA1
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)HNRNPA1
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : FusionGDB16520    16521    3747    40688    41366    5718    8109   
Fusion : Fusion_HubALK--HNRNPA1    B4GALT5--HNRNPA1    CREB3L1--HNRNPA1    HNRNPA1--BEST3    HNRNPA1--C3ORF17    HNRNPA1--DDX5    HNRNPA1--FLJ12825    HNRNPA1--HBB    HNRNPA1--HNRNPA1L2    HNRNPA1--HNRNPA1P48    HNRNPA1--HNRNPA1P54    HNRNPA1--KRT13    HNRNPA1--KRT4    HNRNPA1--MAGED2    HNRNPA1--PGA5   
HNRNPA1--RBBP8    JA040723--HNRNPA1    JA040725--HNRNPA1    KRT13--HNRNPA1    SMN1--HNRNPA1    TTC13--HNRNPA1    VAT1--HNRNPA1   
Fusion : QuiverHNRNPA1
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerHNRNPA1 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)HNRNPA1
dbVarHNRNPA1
ClinVarHNRNPA1
1000_GenomesHNRNPA1 
Exome Variant ServerHNRNPA1
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000135486
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000135486
Varsome BrowserHNRNPA1
Genetic variants : HAPMAP3178
Genomic Variants (DGV)HNRNPA1 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERHNRNPA1 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisHNRNPA1 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalHNRNPA1 
TCGA Data PortalHNRNPA1 
Broad Tumor PortalHNRNPA1
OASIS PortalHNRNPA1 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICHNRNPA1  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DHNRNPA1
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDHNRNPA1
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch HNRNPA1
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)HNRNPA1
DoCM (Curated mutations)HNRNPA1 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)HNRNPA1 (select a term)
intoGenHNRNPA1
NCG5 (London)HNRNPA1
Cancer3DHNRNPA1(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM164017    615424    615426   
Orphanet106    10698   
DisGeNETHNRNPA1
MedgenHNRNPA1
Genetic Testing Registry HNRNPA1
NextProtP09651 [Medical]
TSGene3178
GENETestsHNRNPA1
Target ValidationHNRNPA1
Huge Navigator HNRNPA1 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease3178
BioCentury BCIQHNRNPA1
ClinGenHNRNPA1
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD3178
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA162391113
Clinical trialHNRNPA1
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)HNRNPA1 (select the gene name)
DataMed IndexHNRNPA1
Probes
Litterature
PubMed330 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineHNRNPA1
EVEXHNRNPA1
GoPubMedHNRNPA1
iHOPHNRNPA1
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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